This extract tells us more about the Jordan study: shanab-and-yahya and therefore may be helpful for evaluation. There was no real right to withdraw- the ‘prods’ kept the participants from withdrawing. Each time the ‘learner’ made a mistake, the ‘teacher’ was to administer an electric shock to him. This could also be the participant being in the autonomous state because as the authority figure has left the room, if someone were to come into the room, they’d be the one to blame so there is a sense of personal responsibility there. What are the different types of conformity? Rank and Jacobsen (1975): same set up as Hofling, but the drug was familiar (Valium) and the nurses could consult with others- this time, only 2 out of 18 obeyed (11%).
Refer to evidence in … Milgram told his forty male volunteer research subjects that they were participating in a study about the effects of punishment on learning. Psychologists use cross-cultural studies to determine whether behaviours are determined by nature or nurture.
He found that a high F-Scale score was linked with excessive respect and deference to those of higher status, and concluded that an ‘authoritarian personality’ is a factor in obedience. As the participant is receiving motivation to stand up for what is right from the confederate, it gives the participant confidence to take personal responsibility for the learner and disobey with the stooge, thus obedience dropping to 10%.
This is due to the move for the participant from the agentic state, where they believe the responsibility is in the hands of the authority figure, to the autonomous state, where the participant has a greater sense of personal responsibility. One teacher was a confederate and a disobedient model. We learn these from agencies of socialization including parents, education, peers, religion and the media. Milgram debriefed his participants afterwards, telling them what had really happened. This could also be a by-product of cult and culture, because being part of a group (gang) where, for example, law breaking is the norm, individuals find it easier to break laws. Procedure: 40 American males were recruited through a newspaper advert. Adorno interviewed former Nazi soldiers at the end of World War II, and developed the ‘F-Scale’ (F standing for ‘fascist’), which measured how authoritarian a person is. Confidentiality is a priority, as well as the freedom to withdraw from the experiment at any time. When the proximity of the authority figure was altered, where they left the room and gave their orders by telephone, it was easier to resist the orders from the authority figure if they were not close by. Discuss two factors that have been shown by Milgram to affect obedience. 806 8067 22, Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE. This theory is further proved by the Bickman (1974) experiment in which people dressed in normal clothes, as a milkman or as a security guard asked passers by to pick up litter. This paper looks into the three different concepts of social influence, focusing particularly on the factors that affect the extent of influence and the various researches that has been done on them. This fulfils the requirements of the following internal assessment standard for the Social Behaviour unit: “1.3 Applying understanding of social psychology to everyday behaviour”. Obedience in human behaviour is a form of “social influence in which a person yields to explicit instructions or orders from an authority figure”. There are many factors which affect our level of obedience. Before we look at the research, let’s consider how cultural differences arise. The electric shocks increased in intensity, from 15-450 volts, and each time the learner answered incorrectly, the teacher was instructed to give the next highest shock. The job of the teacher was to ask the learner questions on word pairs, ensuring an electric shock was given when a mistake was made. We will also look at the concept of filial piety and the Japanese word “amae”. Any unauthorised copying or posting of material from this site is a copyright infringement and could result in legal action being taken against you. The orders of the Milkman and the civilian were ignored because their orders were in the incorrect context and they would have appeared confusing to the participants. Obedience fell to 47.5%, because the lack of prestige of the location made it seem less important to obey. Another real life study was the New York Streets study by Bickman. This fulfils the requirements of the following internal assessment standard for the Social Behaviour unit: “1.2 Evaluating psychological research evidence relating to the topic”. This experiment supported that of Milgram’s findings as it showed status affected levels of obedience however it is questionable how representative the study was of the whole population due to the use of opportunity sampling, it only tested who was there at the time. The Guard appeared to have the legitimate authority in this experiment due to the uniform that he was in. The features of an authoritarian personality are: People with this type of personality were more likely to have had a strict upbringing, which gives them respect for authority, but also creates resentment of their parents on an unconscious level, which is displaced onto those perceived as lower than them. picking up litter) by a confederate dressed as a security guard, milkman, or just in a jacket and tie. This is a psychological condition in which a person does not feel in control of their actions; rather, they are under the … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. This weakens the explanation. Overall… Conclusions: People will obey orders from an authority figure (the experimenter, who was wearing a white lab coat), potentially fatally harming a stranger in doing so. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Authority If there… Explain whether you think Poppy’s mum is right or not (4). The participants of the study were told that the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between learning and punishment. When the experimenter left the room and gave order via telephone, obedience levels dropped to 20.5% Obedience dropped when the experimenter left the room because the participants not being directly around them in the same room reduces the legitimate authority that the experimenter has. The agentic shift cannot explain why some participants in Milgram’s study did not obey, as in theory they should all have been in an agentic state. Agentic state: Milgram proposed that one reason why people obeyed in his study was due to the ‘agentic state’. Authoritarian personality- Key study. Milgram found that there were no signs of any long term psychological harm. Excellent summary, Junaid. ( Log Out /
Participants must have known that the situation can’t have been real, so were stressed by having to act along with the situation (although, when questioned, participants did say they thought it was real). It would make sense to the participants that it would be legit for a guard to instruct residents to pick up their litter from the street as that is part of their job role therefore their order was in context and wasn’t confusing to the participants, hence it being a legitimate order. 0.0 / 5. We will use the Hofstede website to find out the scores of the two difference cultural dimensions and also add these to the map: world-map, We will use the following hand-out to collect all our information together: assess-how-culture-affects-levels-of-obedience. Milgram’s original results can be criticized for being ethnocentric, meaning that the results may only apply to people who are from New Haven, a small town in Connecticut on the East Coast of America. Bingo: Culture and Obedience – WordMint. At 315V the learner let out violent screams and at 330V there was silence.
Within obedience, the person is influenced by an authority figure, while conformity involves the person being influenced by the social group. Be careful, because although you are right about individual differences in the Milgram study, the main conclusion was that people were surprisingly easily influenced by the social situation. Bickman (1974) supports the influence of uniform. Obedience involves people behaving as they instructed to, while conformity involves people behaving according to group norms.
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